"Common disease" haemorrhoids: Symptoms and causes
Talk to us about the taboo subject
Most patients who consult a proctologist because of complaints in the rectum suspect a problem with haemorrhoids.
Much more common are anal thrombosis, called "external" hemorrhoids by laymen, and anal fissure (anal fissure) in case of bleeding and pain. Find out now about the symptoms of hemorrhoidal disease and find out what treatment is recommended in your case....
Learn more about the causes in the following: What is the significance of pressing during bowel movements, chronic constipation, sedentary work, taking laxatives and anal sex?
The proctologist understands this to mean (also: haemorrhoids) swelling bodies arranged in a ring at the level of the sphincter muscle in the rectum (anus), also called "corpus cavernosus recti".
These well perfused vascular cushions take their name from the Greek word for blood flow (haíma = blood; rhoos = to flow).
What an apt term: the blood supply to the rectum and anus is provided by four arteries whose terminal branches fill the spongy blood vessels (sinusoids) inside the haemorrhoids.
When the sphincter muscle is tensed, the haemorrhoidal plexus fills up, resulting in an air- and fluid-tight seal of the anal canal. When the muscle relaxes, the corpus cavernosum recti empties. Unhindered passage of stool is guaranteed.
Haemorrhoids are therefore a functional tissue and only become a problem if they become permanently enlarged or prolapse outwards due to a weakness in the connective tissue.
Haemorrhoids develop during puberty and are anchored in the muscular intestinal wall with collagen fibres and muscle fibres.
The presence of haemorrhoids is therefore the normal state and not a disease.
How advanced are the complaints?
The generally accepted classification of severity refers to the size, the external protrusion (prolapse) and the need to then push the haemorrhoids back by hand. Depending on how full they are with blood, haemorrhoids are not always the same size; there is no standard for size. A prolapse does not always necessarily occur, the degree of subjective impairment differs from patient to patient.
Why do haemorrhoids occur?
And finally, the evidence to read again